Ahad, 3 April 2011

Pharmaceutical Microbiology (PHM 1233) Practical 4: Visit to Central Sterile Supply Unit of HTAA


For sure, hospital is the place which is concern about hygiene seriously. This is because to ensure that there is no infection or outbreak of any kind takes place. Thus, the hygienic of a hospital should be regularly maintained. By doing so, many procedures and method should be done in preventing any unwanted occurrences. In a practical, students had visited the Central Sterile Supply Unit (CSSU) of Tengku Ampuan Afzan Hospital (HTAA), Kuantan for the interest of further understanding in sterilization process.


  1. To gain any kinds of knowledge of the sterilization process including the steps involved and its equipments.
  2. To appreciate the importance of sterility in relation to maintain the hygienic environment.


Sterilization is a process which eradicates or eliminates the entire microorganisms including bacterial spores. Disinfection refers to the elimination of certain but not the entire microorganisms by disinfectants. Sterilization process normally can be done by autoclaving which is involving the exposure to steam at 121°C under the pressure of 15 lb/in2 for about 15 minutes.

Commonly CSSU was divided into 4 chambers, which are including dirty room, clean room, pre-sterile room, and sterile room.

First chamber, which is dirty room, is the place to receive the surgical apparatus which were recently used after any operations. In this chamber, there is a small which is functioned to deliver the used surgical apparatus sets from Operation Theater after an operation was done. Then, staffs will collect the sets and firstly clean them by using bacteriostatic cleaner. This cleaner washes out first layer dirt at the surgical apparatus by using triple enzyme in it which is specific for that. The staffs protect themselves by wearing protecting face shields, gloves, apron and boots when handling this cleaner. This is to ensure that the microorganisms could be enter or penetrate the skin. Then, the sets which are brought to this chamber are counted to make sure that no part are missing. If, there is missing part, supervisor then will report to the person in charge.

After that, ultrasonic bath is used as the next procedure in the cleaning process. This very expensive and sensitive machine is used to rupture the remaining microorganism in the surgical instruments by ultrasonic wave. Next, all the apparatus will be transferred to the drying chamber to be dried after being cleaned by bacteriostatic cleaner and ultrasonic bath.

Then, after being dried, all the apparatus will be transferred to next room: the clean room, pre-sterile room and sterile room. In this stage, cleaning process will be done more intensively, so that all the operation apparatus will be free from mites and dust. Next, for sure they will be dried again and being packed as medical packaging.

Firstly, in pre-sterile room, all the dust and mites will be cleared. This is because, two layers which is closing the chamber will prevent it from being entered by the mites and dust.

Next is the process in the sterile room. This is the last stage of cleaning. As the last stage of cleaning, this room will fully sterilize the apparatus from the previous chambers. There is an autoclave machine which is important for a sterilization process. This machine will act by producing 121-135oc of steam. This temperature actually is ready enough to kill the remaining spores and microorganism.

However, there are certain instruments cannot withstand at very high temperature as being provide by the autoclave machine. Thus, this certain instruments will be sterilized in another special chamber which already being filled with ethylene oxide. Ethylene oxide will act as oxidant which helps to kill spores, even though in a temperature as low as 56oc as being provided by this special chamber. As the ethylene oxide is a very strong oxidants which can cause cancer, precaution should be made when enter to this room, like wearing mask, gloves and boots.

When all the cleaning process already finished, all the instruments will be wrapped by medical packaging. Then, they will be cooled for a while at room temperature. After that, all the instruments will be wrapped again with medical packaging and will be cooled down for a while at room temperature. After all, all the instruments will be kept in room and ready to be delivered to the deserved place.

As conclusion, this process actually being compiled from five processes. Firstly, the process is receiving apparatus, and then all the apparatus are being cleaned by using machines. Next, all the apparatus will be dried. The third process is wrapping process. Number four is sterilization process and lastly is the storage process.


As conclusion, all the objectives are achieved. This visit actually can teach all the students to know what is actually happen in a sterilization process. And for sure, the students can also appreciate the important of the sterilization process.


  1. Lecture notes, microbiology, Dr.Elamin ,2008/2009
  2. Autoclave. (2009). Retrieved March 20, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autoclave

p/s- Kah kah kah, menatang benda ni? Ini adalah contoh report dan Bahasa England gua. Amacam?

Kenapa letak dalam blog?? Ikut pandai gua la blog gua.

5 ulasan:

  1. ni submit bila ni?
    markah penoh berapa?
    kalau nk print,spacing kena berapa?

  2. hahaha~

    tetiba de lab report kat cni?

  3. woi...mentang copy paste.. kat blog pon nk boh

  4. Spacing bebas la brader, baru gaya remaja.

    He he.